Carbonate and sulphide ores are converted into oxide ores how

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Carbonate and sulphide ores are converted into oxide ores how

The process of working of the concentrated ore to extract metal depends upon the nature of the ore as well as the nature of the impurities present in t he ore. The concentrated ore must be converted into a form which is suitable for reduction.

Generally, the sulphide ores are converted to oxides before reduction because oxides are easily reduced.

Metals and Non-metals

The main operations for the working of the ore involves two steps:. The concentrated ore is either a hydrated oxide, a carbonate or a sulphide. It can be converted into its oxide form by the following two methods :.

Calcination is a process of heating the ore strongly either in a limited supply of air or in the absence of air. During calcination, the following changes take place :. For example. The ore is calcined i. During calcination, carbon dioxide is expelled. CaCO 3.

carbonate and sulphide ores are converted into oxide ores how

H 2 O in its bauxite ore. When the bauxite ore is calcined, water vapours are expelled and anhydrous aluminium oxide is obtained.

carbonate and sulphide ores are converted into oxide ores how

Roasting is the process of heating the ore strongly in the presence of excess of air at a temperature below the melting point of the metal. As a result of roasting, the moisture and volatile impurities are removed and the ore is converted to oxide.

The ores of the metal are converted into their oxides. For example, the sulphide ore of the metal is roasted to give oxide. Sometimes, the oxidation of sulphides takes place only to the sulphate stage. Both calcination and roasting are generally carried in a reverberatory furnace. The metal oxides are usually reduced to free metals by using a suitable reducing agent such as carbon, carbon monoxide or even another metal.

The process of extraction of metal by heating the metal oxide with a suitable reducing agent is called thermal reduction or pyrometallurgy. Some metals are easily reduced i. Depending upon the nature of the oxide and metal, the extraction of metal can be carried out by the following reducing agents:.

These methods are discussed below :. The oxides of metals like zinc, copper, tin, lead, etc. The process of extraction of metal by reduction of its oxide with carbon in the form of charcoal, coke or carbon monoxide is called smelting.

The roasted ore is mixed with a suitable amount of carbon coke or coal or carbon monoxide and heated to a high temperature above the melting point of the metal in a furnace. Carbon or carbon monoxide produced by incomplete combustion of carbon reduces the oxide to free metal. The carbon reduction process is generally carried out in a blast furnace. Different chemical reactions occur at different temperatures zones in the blast furnace.

Certain metal oxides are reduced by hydrogen.Aluminium is a highly reactive metal, yet it is used to make utensils for cooking. Answer: Aluminium is a highly reactive metal and hence it easily reacts with the oxygen in air. This reaction results in the formation of a layer of aluminium oxide over the metal. The layer of aluminium oxide prevents further reaction of aluminium with oxygen. This makes aluminium a corrosion resistant material.

Class xii Metallurgy- Part2 Conversion of ore into its oxide

Moreover, aluminium is a good conductor of heat. Due to these reasons, aluminium is used to make cooking utensils. Carbonate and sulphide ores are usually converted into oxides during the process of extraction.

Answer: Obtaining a metal from its oxide is much easier than doing that from a metal sulphide or carbonate. Due to this; metal sulphides and carbonates are first converted to metal oxides during metallurgy.

You must have seen tarnished copper vessels being cleaned with lemon or tamarind juice. Explain why these sour substances are effective in cleaning the vessels. Answer: A copper vessel becomes tarnished because of formation of a layer of copper carbonate or oxide over it.

Acids react with carbonates and oxides and thus help in cleaning the copper vessel. Differentiate between metal and non-metal on the basis of their chemical properties. Answer: Difference between metals and non-metals on the basis of chemical properties is as follows:.

A man went door to door posing as a goldsmith. He promised to bring back the glitter of old and dull gold ornaments. An unsuspecting lady gave a set of gold bangles to him which he dipped in a particular solution. The bangles sparkled like new but their weight was reduced drastically. The lady was upset but after a futile argument the man beat a hasty retreat. Can you play the detective to find out the nature of the solution he had used? Answer: We know that goldsmiths use aqua-regia to clean gold ornaments.

While cleaning a gold ornament with aqua-regia; some of the gold gets dissolved in it. This results in some weight loss of the gold ornament. That is what happened in the given case.Give reason for the following: Carbonate and sulphide ores are usually converted into oxides during the process of extraction of metals.

Carbonate and sulphide ores are usually converted into oxides during the process of extraction because metals can be easily extracted from their oxides rather than from their carbonates and sulphides.

It is easier to extract metals from their oxide ores by reduction process than their carbonate and sulphide ores. Hence, carbonate and sulphide ores are usually converted into oxides during the process of extraction of metals. Question Papers. Question Papers Textbook Solutions Important Solutions Question Bank Solutions Time Tables Solution 1 Show Solution Carbonate and sulphide ores are usually converted into oxides during the process of extraction because metals can be easily extracted from their oxides rather than from their carbonates and sulphides.

Solution 2 Show Solution It is easier to extract metals from their oxide ores by reduction process than their carbonate and sulphide ores. Prev Next. Concept: Enrichment of Ores. Share 0. Select a course. My Profile. My Profile [view full profile]. Inform you about time table of exam. Inform you about new question papers. New video tutorials information.Copper is refined from ores in the ground, either through underground or open-pit mines.

Most of the copper ores mined today are oxide or sulfide ores. The process used to treat sulfide copper ores begins at the mine site, where the copper-bearing minerals are physically separated from the rest of the rock. The flow diagram below shows how the percentage of copper increases as the ore is refined, first physically by froth flotation, then chemically by smelting and finally electrolytic refining.

carbonate and sulphide ores are converted into oxide ores how

The smelting stage gives the name pyroprocessing: processing by fire. The smelter for sulfide ores produces sulfur dioxide gas.

This is scrubbed from the flue gases to make sulfuric acid for leaching copper from oxide ores. Scrubbing sulfur dioxide also protects the environment. A by-product of the smelting and converting furnaces is sulfuric acid. In what looks like a lucky coincidence, sulfuric acid is needed to treat oxide ores in processes called leaching and SX-EW Solvent Extraction — Electrowinning.

The acid would have to be made anyway as it would be environmentally unacceptable to release sulfur dioxide gas into the atmosphere. The flowchart above shows how the smelting process of sulfide ores produces sulphur dioxide, which is converted to sulfuric acid. The chart below shows how acid is used to leach out copper ions creating lakes of blue copper sulfate solution from which copper is recovered in a solvent and then electrolytically refined in a process called solvent extraction and electrowinning SX-EW.

This chart shows how sulfuric acid is used to extract copper. Crushed ore in the leach pad. The pregnant leach pond is in the distance. The crushed ore rests on a leak-proof membrane to protect the underlying ground and prevent the acid and copper ions polluting the local water table. The pregnant leach pond contains copper ions that give it the blue colour of copper sulfate. The liquid is continually pumped to the SX-EW plant. Copper sulfate solution is collected in the pregnant leach pond then pumped to the solvent extraction plant.

The solvent extraction phase of treatment occurs in two stages. During the initial phase an organic solvent is used to recover copper ions contained in the pregnant leach solution, exchanging them with hydrogen ions in the acid.

The final phase of the solvent extraction process employs a strong acid to strip the copper from the organic solution, producing a blue, enriched copper-bearing solution that is treated at an electrowinning plant. After solvent extraction using organic solvents, the copper ions are stripped from the solution with a strong acid and leave a blue solution with a high copper content.

The electrowinning plant uses electrolysis to collect copper onto steel cathodes. Inert lead anodes are used. These do not take part in the electrolysis except to complete the electrical circuit. Courtesy of ICSG. One of the biggest advantages of using leaching is that low grade ores that would be uneconomic to smelt become economic to leach. This is largely due to the much lower energy costs of leaching and also to the lower capital and employment costs of the process.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service.

Chemistry Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for scientists, academics, teachers, and students in the field of chemistry. It only takes a minute to sign up. In the elementary extraction of metals from their concentrated ores, why is the ore generally converted to an oxide, and then reduced? Why is the reduction of these metal oxides easier than the other corresponding compounds, say sulphides or carbonates.

An exception happens to be copper pyrite which is roasted to form copper sulphide instead of copper oxide Wikipedia. And why is copper an exception? The concentrated ore must be converted into a form which is suitable for reduction. Usually the sulphide ore is converted to oxide before reduction.

Oxides are easier to reduce. Thus isolation of metals from concentrated ore involves two major steps viz. Coal is still abundant on our planet. Try to pull that with a sulfide! In the unlikely case if it will, you'll have to deal with the byproduct.

Copper is less active, so instead of going via oxide, we have a chance to go straight to the metal in one step. Would be stupid not to use it. Then there is aluminum which is not reduced like that, but then again, we don't convert it from sulfide to oxide either, primarily because we don't have much sulfide around. Should it be otherwise, it isn't immediately clear would we choose to convert it or not.

Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. Why is the ore generally converted to an oxide and then reduced? Asked 2 years, 3 months ago. Active 2 years, 3 months ago. Viewed 4k times. Gaurang Tandon 7, 8 8 gold badges 41 41 silver badges 89 89 bronze badges.

For example ; Ni is mostly converted from sulfideand has been converted to a gas Ni C O - Mond processdon't know if this is still done. Some ores are converted to oxides to aid in flotation separationnot to permit reduction with carbon as the primary purpose. Active Oldest Votes. So it goes. Ivan Neretin Ivan Neretin Featured on Meta.It is easier to obtain a metal from its oxide as compared to its sulphides and carbonates.

The process of extracting copper of copper carbonateThe concentrated ore is heated strongly with silicon dioxide silica and air or oxygen in a furnace or series of furnaces. The copper II ions in the chalcopyrite are reduced to copper I sulphide which is reduced further to copper metal in the final stage.

The iron in the chalcopyrite ends up converted into an iron II silicate slag which is removed. Most of the sulphur in the chalcopyrite turns into sulphur dioxide gas.

This is used to make sulphuric acid via the Contact Process. An overall equation for this series of steps is:The copper I sulphide produced is converted to copper with a final blast of air. It is the process of distillation! During this process,sulphur wll be distilled. Extraction in chemistry: separation of a substance from a mixture. For the liquid-liquid extraction see the link bellow. This is the process of extraction of sodium chloride from salt mines or sea waters.

The sun's energy is converted into food by the process of photosynthesis. Isolation is the process of the seperation of the two metals but extraction is the process in which we get the desired metal from the concentrate. The process in which a liquid is converted into a gas is called evaporation.

carbonate and sulphide ores are converted into oxide ores how

The process for extracting natural gas is hydraulic fracturing also referred to as "fracking". In this process rock is drilled in to deep enough to hit the natural gases, and pump them for extraction. High pressure is an important part of the oil extraction process because it squeezes the oil out of places that are hard to access. Ah ha I am back with a better answer.

Conversion of ore into metal

In the past all of the heavy water for Canada's domestic and export needs has been extracted from ordinary water, where deuterium occurs naturally at a concentration of about ppm deuterium-to-hydrogen.

For bulk commercial production, the primary extraction process to date, the "Girdler-Sulphide G-S " process, exploits the temperature-dependence of the exchange of deuterium between water and hydrogen-sulphide gas H2S.

In a typical G-S heavy-water extraction tower, ordinary water is passed over perforated trays through which the gas is bubbled. In the "hot section" of each tower the deuterium will migrate to the hydrogen-sulphide gas, and in the "cold section" this deuterium migrates back into cold feedwater. It is because unlike sodium carbonate potassium carbonate is fairly soluble in water and it does not forms precipitate.

The three steps in the process of seeing is "reception, extraction, and inference". Enfleurage: Extraction of delicate perfumes. Eculle: mechanical extraction. Solvent extraction: using lipid solvents. Extraction is controlled extraction of steam at medium pressure. Nitrogen fixation is the process in which nitrogen is converted into a form that plants can use.

Asked By Curt Eichmann.So the ore is first converted into an oxide. A carbonate ore is first converted into oxide ore by calcination. A sulphide ore is converted into oxide ore by roasting. The water content and the volatile impurities also get expelled. Volatile impurities also get expelled. Zinc sulphide in its ore zinc blende ZnS is roasted to obtain zinc oxide ZnO. Mercuric oxide is obtained by roasting cinnabar HgS in air.

Beacuse metals such as iron, zinc, lead, copper etc. It is easier to obtain a metal from its oxide, as compared to sulphides and carbonates. Therefore, prior to reduction, the metal sulphides and carbonates must be converted into metal oxides.

It is easier to reduce a metal from its oxide as compared to its sulphides and carbonates. Hence, usually the metal sulphides and carbonates are converted to metal oxides before the reduction during the extraction process.

All rights reserved. Metals and Non-metals. Share with your friends. Fathima Parween answered this. View Full Answer. Shabibah Khan answered this. Ashwin Mathew answered this. Arka Sinha answered this. Carbonates are changed to oxides through a process called calcination. In this process the mineral is heated in absence of air E. Sulphides are changed to oxides by a process called roasting.


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